This led to controversy among other Kurdish nationalists as it excluded the Van region (perhaps as a sop for Armenian claims to this region). Emin Ali Bedir Khan proposed an alternative map that included Van and a drain to the sea via what is now the Turkish province of Hatay.  In the midst of a joint statement by the Kurdish and Armenian delegations, the Kurdish claims to the vilayet of Erzurum and Sassoun (Sason) were dropped, but the arguments for sovereignty over Ağrı and Muş remained.  This crucial period in Turkish history reinforces a fundamental idea of international politics, namely that facts on the ground shape peace agreements. The Turkish War of Independence changed these facts on the ground, called for the Treaty of Sèvres and led to peace in Lausanne. After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, Britain, France, Italy and Greece divided Anatolia and colonized the territory that is now Turkey. However, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk reorganized the remnants of the Ottoman army and thwarted this attempt at partition with clever diplomacy and several years of war. Subsequently, the Treaty of Lausanne of 1923 recognized Atatürk`s victory and established the borders of modern Turkey. Lausanne then became part of the country`s founding myth. For a while, he even had his own party, Lausanne Day, when children were dressed in costumes depicting disputed regions of Anatolia for primary school games. • Oblige Turkey not to impose restrictions on citizens in the use of a language of their choice, whether in relations or in public meetings or in the fields of religion, commerce, media and publishing, with the confirmation of the rights of political and economic sovereignty of the Turkish State and the abolition of the application of the system of foreign privileges on its territory. Neither proposal was approved by the Treaty of Sèvres, which described a shortened Kurdistan over what is now Turkish territory (excluding the Kurds of Iran, British-controlled Iraq, and French-controlled Syria).  Today`s Iraqi-Turkish border was agreed in July 1926.
Britain and France marked distinct areas of colonial influence from the Deserts of Arabia to the Black Sea, motivated in part by their desire for lucrative oil concessions. Greece and Italy secured their own possessions in what is now western and southern Turkey, including control of countless Aegean islands. Istanbul, once the capital of a transcontinental imperial behemoth, would be internationalized with the strategic straits that span the city. Ethnic Armenians and Kurds received their own enclaves, while the Ottomans remained a humiliating rump state in the Anatolian hinterland. When the Ottoman Empire was exhausted by wars in 1918, the set was set to deal a final and deadly blow to Sèvres. Although it was never implemented, the Treaty of Sèvres still resonates a hundred years later. In fact, Sèvres has become the embodiment of external interference and double standards applied by European countries towards Turkey. In 1839, Britain invaded China to crush resistance to its involvement in the country`s economic and political affairs, and one of the main objectives of the British War was to occupy Hong Kong Island, populated on the coast of southeastern China. The new British colony (Hong Kong Island) flourished by becoming a trading center between East and West and a commercial gateway and distribution center for southern China, and in 1898, Britain received another 99 years of rule over Hong Kong under the Second Beijing Accords. In return, Turkey renounced any claim to the former Turkish territories outside its new borders and pledged to guarantee the rights of its minorities.